Poverty headcount ratio at $6.85 a day (2017 PPP) (% of population)
Equivalent to 1,320 Brazilian Reais per worker per month.
WageIndicator Foundation, 2023
Equivalent to 2,522 Brazilian reais per worker per month.
Global Living Wage Coalition, 2022
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
The population of Brazil is around 214 million people. The country is highly urbanised with 87% of its population living in cities and only 13% in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 7% of Brazil’s GDP and it is estimated that 10% of the population is employed in this sector.
Since the 1970s, the number of large-scale, commercial farms has continued to increase, and smallholders are estimated to account for 20% of all farmers in Brazil. Nearly 45% of Brazil’s agricultural land is held by the largest 1% of Brazil’s farms; a reflection of the structural problem of land distribution in Brazil.
The top grown agricultural commodities in Brazil are sugar cane, soybeans, maize, fresh milk and cassava. Brazil’s top export commodities in terms of quantity commodities are soybeans, maize, raw sugar, soybeans cake and regined sugar.
In Brazil there is a government mandated minimum wage. As of January 2023, the general minimum wage for Brazil is 1,320 Brazilian Reais (238 EUR) per month.Employers who fail to comply with the national minimum wage are subject to punishment by the government, however, thus far such penalties have not been proven to be successful in ensuring employer compliance.
The Global Living Wage Coalition has developed 2 Living Wage Benchmarks based on the Anker methodology, one for Minas Gerais, rural Brazil and one for São Paulo State, non-metropolitan Brazil.
The Global Living Wage Coalition has estimated the living wage for Minas Gerais South/Southwestern Region of rural Brazil to be 2,522 Brazilian Reals per month (456 EUR). This number is based on a family of 4 with 1.71 workers. The living wage benchmark provides context in the rural coffee growing regions of Southern Brazil. The Minas Gerais Southern and Southwestern mesoregion is the world leader in coffee production and is responsible for 24% of Brazil’s coffee production, most of which is exported. Accordingly, the living wage report uses prevailing wages in the coffee sector for comparison with the estimated living wage.
Updated living wage estimate for the State of São Paulo, Brazil focussing on orange production in the citrus belt. Global Living Wage Coalition, 2022.