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World bank, 2019
Poverty headcount ratio at $3.65 a day (2017 PPP) (% of population)
Population below international poverty line

Equivalent to 3,000 Egyptian pounds per worker per month.
WageIndicator Foundation, 2023

per month
National minimum wage

Equivalent to 7,418 Egyptian pounds per worker per month.
Global Living Wage Coalition, 2023


per month
Rural living wage
World bank, 2021
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
Agricultural workforce
World bank, 2022
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
Agriculture share of GDP

ITUC Global Rights Index, 2023
No guarantee of rights.

very high
Risk to workers' rights


Egypt has a population of 111 million people,[1] of which 57% live in rural areas[2] and the remaining 43% in urban centers.[3] The agricultural sector accounts for 20% of total employment[4] and contributes to the country’s GDP by 11%.[5]

Despite its relatively small contribution to GDP, agriculture is of vital importance for Egypt as a major economic activity. Many citizens highly depend on sustenance farming. Smallholder farmers represent half of Egypt’s agricultural holdings, with plots of less than 0.42 hectares.[6]

Despite its dry climate, Egypt has the Nile to thank for its fertile land, allowing the country to be a large marker for various agricultural products. The top produced crops in Egypt are sugar beet, sugar cane, wheat, maize, potatoes and tomatoes, respectively.[7] Egypt’s top commodities in terms of export quantity are oranges, potatoes, wheat flour and molasses.[8]

  1. ^ World Bank (2022).
  2. ^ World Bank (2022).
  3. ^ World Bank (2022).
  4. ^ World Bank (2021).
  5. ^ World Bank (2021).
  6. ^ FAO (2016.) AQUASTAT Country Profile –Egypt. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Rome, Italy.
  7. ^ FAOSTAT (2021).
  8. ^ FAOSTAT (2021).


Minimum wage

The minimum wage in Egypt is set by law at 3,000.00 Egyptian Pound (114 EUR) per month. It is based on 8 hours per day for 5-day workweek or on 7 hours per day for a 6-day workweek.[1]

Egypt is among the world’s 10 worst countries for workers[2].  The minimum wage only covers public sector and government workers, leaving a lack of regulation in the private and informal sectors. This uneven playing field poses a challenge to improve the poor working conditions faced by workers in the informal economy, who make up 40% of the total workforce.[3]
  1. ^ WageIndicator Foundation (2023). Minimum Wage-Egypt.
  2. ^ ITUC Global Rights Index, 2023
  3. ^ U.S. Department of State. (2019)

Living wage

The Global Living Wage Coalition, has developed a living wage reference value study for rural Egypt, based on the Anker methodology, which refers specifically to the rural areas of the country.

The Anker Living Wage Reference Value is estimated at 7,418 Egyptian Pound (282 EUR) per month, which is more than double the national minimum wage. The reference value is a wage which would guarantee workers a basic but decent standard of living in a typical rural area in Egypt. Due to the heterogeneous poverty rates in Egypt, it is expected that the minimum living wage gaps will vary greatly from one area to another.[1]

  1. ^ Global Living Wage Coalition (2023). Anker Living Wage Reference Value: Rural Egypt.

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Living Wage Reference Value, Rural Egypt

Living wage estimate for workers in a typical rural area of Egypt to afford a basic but decent living standard. Global Living Wage Coalition.       


Inside Inequality in the Arab republic of Egypt

A book, collaboration of the World Bank and the Social Contract Center of Egypt, drawing a picture on inequality inside of Egypt’s borders.

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