Sign up to our newsletter to get the latest on living wage and income  
Need help?


World bank, 2016
Poverty headcount ratio at $3.65 a day (2017 PPP) (% of population)
Population below international poverty line

Equivalent to 401 Ghanaian Cedi per worker per month
WageIndicator Foundation, 2023

per month
National minimum wage

Equivalent to 2,922 Ghanaian cedi per worker per month.
Global Living Wage Coalition, 2023

per month
Rural living wage
World bank, 2019
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
Agricultural workforce
World bank, 2021
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
Agriculture share of GDP

ITUC Global Rights Index, 2023
Repeated violations of rights

Risk to workers' rights


Ghana has a population of roughly 31.7 million people,[1] with 42% living in rural regions[2] and 58% living in urban areas.[3] The agricultural sector employs 30% of the workforce,[4] making up roughly one fifth of Ghana’s GDP.[5]

Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for the majority of the country’s poorest households. Low yields for both staple and cash crops in Ghana’s agricultural sector is common.[6] Ghana’s agriculture is dominated by smallholder farmers. They farm following traditional practices on plots which are often smaller than 2 ha. Agribusinesses have shown interest in collaborating with smallholders in Ghana. However, if Ghana’s traditional approach to agriculture is to change towards a modern commercial model, then small-holder farmers would need significant help to modernise their methods [7]

The top produced commodities in Ghana are cassava, yams, plantains, maize and palm oil fruit.[8] Ghana’s top export commodities in terms of quantity are cocoa beans, shelled cashew nuts, palm oil cocoa powder and cocoa cake and wheat flower.[9]

  1. ^ World Bank (2021).
  2. ^ World Bank (2021).
  3. ^ World Bank (2021).
  4. ^ World Bank (2019).
  5. ^ World Bank. (2021).
  6. ^ World Bank (2017) Ghana Agriculture Sector Policy Note: Transforming Agriculture for Economic Growth, Job Creation, and Food Security. World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
  7. ^ IFAD. Country Profiles: Ghana.
  8. ^ FAOSTAT (2019).
  9. ^ FAOSTAT (2019).


Minimum wage

In Ghana the minimum wage is set by law at 14.88 Ghanaian cedi (1.6 EUR) per day[1] , or 401 Ghanaian cedi (45 EUR) per month based on 27 working days. Many companies in the country however do not comply with the law. There has been a widespread violation of the minimum wage by all sectors. On the other hand, in the informal sector, the minimum wage was not enforced at all. In addition, although workers have the right by law to remove themselves from dangerous situations at work, only few reported free to exercise this right without feeling  that they are jeopardising their employment.[2]

  1. ^ WageIndicator Foundation. (2023).
  2. ^ U.S. Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Ghana.

Living wage

The Global Living Wage Coalition has developed a Living Wage Benchmark study for peri-urban Ghana, Lower Volta region, based on the Anker methodology.

The Anker Living Wage Benchmark for peri-urban Ghana is estimated at 2,922 Ghanaian cedis (331 EUR) per month.[1] The estimate accounts for the wage required by banana workers to afford a basic but decent standard of living in the lower Volta River region of Ghana. Banana workers in this region inhabit small towns and settlements along the river, which can be categorised as peri-urban. Although in Ghana bananas are grown in many areas for domestic consumption, all banana production for export is concentrated in the Lower Volta Region. The banana sector in the region is fully unionised, which creates favourable collective bargaining conditions. Nevertheless, banana workers in the area do not rely solely on their income from the banana plantations but rather try to diversify it through other activities.

  1. ^ Global Living Wage Coalition (2023). Living Wage Update: Ghana, peri-urban, Lower Volta Area.

Living income

The Living Income Community of Practise has developed a living income benchmark for the rural cocoa growing areas of Ghana (Ashanti, Central, Eastern, and Western Regions).

The estimated living income is 2,324 Ghanaian cedis (174 EUR) per month.[1] This number is based on a typical family of 2 adults and 3 children, with 1.56 fulltime workers. Along with Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana is a leading force in cocoa production. More than half of all Ghana’s cocoa comes from the Western region, while second in importance is the Ashanti region. 

  1. ^ Living Income Community of Practice (2022). Living Income 2022 Update: Rural Ghana -Cocoa growing areas of Ashanti, Central, Eastern and Western.

Working conditions

Labour law violations regularly occur in Ghana, leaving many workers at risk. According to the CSR Risk check, in Ghana, violations of the minimum wage law in the formal economy is widespread. In addition, the majority of the workforce is informally employed, which leads to lost earnings, irregular income, no social security, and poor working conditions. Hence, an understanding of how the country operates in practise is crucial to understanding the root causes of low wages and how best to intervene.

Show less

What's happening


Living Wage Benchmark, Peri-Urban Ghana 

Lving wage estimate for workers to be able to afford a basic but decent living standard in the Lower Volta River area of Ghana. Global Living Wage Coalition. 


Fairtrade Living Income Reference Prices for Cocoa

A Fairtrade LIRP indicates the price needed for an average farmer household with a viable farm size and an adequate productivity level to make a living income from the sales of their crop. This study was updated in 2023. 


Living Income Benchmark, Rural Ghana

Living income estimate for rural Ghana, focussing on cocoa-growing farmers. Living Income Community of Practice, 2022. 


Fairtrade Living Income Reference Prices

Living Income Reference Prices for cocoa in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Fairtrade International, 2019.


Demystifying the Cocoa Sector

Major study on the cocoa sector in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. KIT The Royal Tropical Institute


Income Gap of Cocoa Producing Households

This report by KIT compares the actual incomes of Ghanaian cocoa producing households with the living income benchmark.

Learned enough?