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Morocco

World bank, 2013
Poverty headcount ratio at $3.20 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population)
7%
Population below international poverty line

Equivalent to 1,904 Moroccan dirham per worker per month.
WageIndicator Foundation, 2020

174
per month
Agriculture minimum wage

Equivalent to 2,249 Moroccan dirham per worker per month.
Global Living Wage Coalition, 2020

206
per month
Rural living wage
World bank, 2019
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
33%
Agricultural workforce
World bank, 2019
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
12%
Agriculture share of GDP

ITUC Global Rights Index, 2020
Regular violation of rights.

3
medium
Risk to workers' rights

Context

Morocco has a population of roughly 36.5 million,[1] with nearly 63% of the population living in urban areas.[2] The agricultural sector employs 34% of the labour force in Morocco[3] and accounts for 12% of the national GDP.[4]

Poverty in Morocco is strongly evident in its rural areas, whose inhabitants depend heavily, directly or indirectly, on agriculture.[5] Agriculture is therefore crucial to the Moroccan economy, as it provides 85% of employment for the rural population of the country. Lack of irrigation is common in Morocco as is the lack of formal land titles, which create unfavourable conditions for farmers to improve their livelihoods.[6] In addition, the sector is highly vulnerable to external weather shocks, which increases the vulnerability of smallholder farmers.[7]

The top produced crops in Morocco are wheat, sugar beet, cow milk, potatoes and olives.[8] As for the largest exported commodities in Morocco, these are tomatoes, sugar, tangerines, mandarins, clementines, watermelons and oranges, respectively. [9]

Footnotes
  1. ^ World Bank (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=MA
  2. ^ World Bank (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS?locations=MA
  3. ^ World Bank (2020). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS?locations=MA
  4. ^ World Bank (2018). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS?locations=MA
  5. ^ Ramirez, J. (2016). Innovations for inclusive agricultural finance and risk mitigation mechanisms: The case of Tamwil El Fellah in Morocco. FAO. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6166e.pdf
  6. ^ IFAD. Morocco. https://www.ifad.org/en/web/operations/country/id/morocco
  7. ^ IFAD (2019). Morocco and IFAD to invest in smallholder farmers’ climate change resilience. https://www.ifad.org/en/web/latest/news-detail/asset/41458972
  8. ^ FAOSTAT (2019). http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#rankings/commodities_by_country
  9. ^ FAOSTAT (2019). http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#rankings/commodities_by_country_exports

Wages

Minimum Wage

The minimum wage in Morocco varies per sector, ranging from 1,904 Moroccan dirhams (174 EUR) per month in the agricultural sector to 3,300 Moroccan dirhams (302 EUR) per month in the public sector.[1]

The minimum wage in Morocco is above the poverty line level, but the government has not been effective in enforcing basic provisions of the labour law. There are many cases where the minimum wage has not been paid to employees. In addition, the country’s inspecting force lacks resources to carry out adequate inspections, and sanctions have not yet succeeded to stop offenders. [2]

Footnotes
  1. ^ WageIndicator Foundation (2021). Minimum Wage-Morocco. https://wageindicator.org/salary/minimum-wage/morocco
  2. ^ U.S. Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Morocco. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/morocco/

Living Wage

The Global Living Wage Coalition has developed a Living Wage Reference Value study for rural Morocco based on the Anker methodology.

The Anker Living Wage Reference Value for rural Morocco in 2020 is estimated at 2,249 Moroccan dirhams (206 EUR) per month. This estimate consists of a net living wage of 2,097 Moroccan dirhams (192 EUR), plus 152 Moroccan dirhams (14 EUR) for social benefits and health insurance. This is the wage required for workers in a typical rural area of Morocco to afford a basic but decent standard of living for a typical size family in 2020. The living wage estimate is about 16% higher than the agricultural minimum wage.[1]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Global Living Wage Coalition (2020). Anker Living Wage Reference Value: Rural Morocco 2020. https://globallivingwage.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/Rural-Morocco-LW-Reference-Value-FINAL_updated.pdf

What's happening

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Living Wage Reference Value, Rural Morocco

Living wage estimate for workers to be able to afford a basic but decent living standard in a typical rural area of Morocco. Global Living Wage Coalition, 2020.

resource

Food Price Inflation and Food Security: A Morocco case study

This report by IISD focuses on the effect of inflation for the Food security level of Morocco.

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Creating positive change for workers

This report looks at the collaboration of Fairfood with a local trade union to improve working conditions in the Moroccan tomato sector, and to ensure living wages.

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Farmers’ organizations and smallholder development

This report by IFAD, focuses on the effect of farmers’ organizations for the development of smallholders livelihoods, with case studies from 12 countries.

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