Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population)
Equivalent to 4,390 Mozambique metical per worker per month.
Equivalent to 9,121 Mozambique metical for a tupical family in rural Mozambique per month.
Global Living Wage Coalition, 2020
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
Mozambique has a population of approximately 30 million people, with 63% living in rural areas and 37% living in urban areas. The agricultural sector assumes 70% of total employment in Mozambique and represents 26% of the national GDP.
Despite its past of a long civil war, the country has been characterized by extraordinary economic growth in recent decades. However, this development has not been translated in better livelihoods for the Mozambican population, the majority of whom still lives in poverty. Agriculture is the main economic activity in rural areas. Farmers mainly depend on their crops to survive, yet they face low productivity and are often isolated from the markets. Women’s agricultural work in rural areas is essential to the household income, yet they are in a highly disadvantaged position. They have limited access to productive resources, no voice in decision-making processes and lower wages than men.
The top produced commodities in Mozambique are sugar cane, cassava, maize, milk and bananas. Mozambique’s top export commodities in terms of quantity are cigars, raw sugar, dry beans, wheat bran and bananas.
The minimum wage in Mozambique varies greatly per sector. In the agriculture, livestock and forestry sector the minimum wage is 4,390 Mozambique Metical (48 EUR) per month. Although there are laws protecting workers in the formal sector, 95% of the employment in Mozambique is in the informal economy. Overtime, low wages, and other health and safety measures are not effectively enforced in the informal sector. Furthermore, workers employed in the agricultural sector suffer some of the worst working conditions and wage abuses.
The Global Living Wage Coalition has developed a Living Income Reference Value study for rural Mozambique based on the Anker methodology.
The Anker Living Income Reference Value is estimated at 9,121 Mozambique Metical (99 EUR) per month, which refers to the monthly cost of a typical family in rural Mozambique to have a decent but basic standard of living. The living income estimate is about 30% higher than the family income at the World Bank $1.90 poverty line. It is also 21% higher than the income of a typical rural family with 1.71 full-time workers earning the agricultural minimum wage.