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Tunisia

World bank, 2015
Poverty headcount ratio at $3.20 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population)
3%
Population below international poverty line

Equivalent to 429 Tunisian dinars per worker per month.
WageIndicator Foundation, 2021

130
per month
National minimum wage

Equivalent to 446 Tunisian dinars per worker per month
WageIndicator Foundation, 2021

135
per month
Agriculture minimum wage

Equivalent to 695 Tunisian dinars per worker per month.
Global Living Wage Coalition, 2020

210
per month
Rural living wage
World bank, 2019
Employment in agriculture (% of total employment) (modeled ILO estimate)
14%
Agricultural workforce
World bank, 2019
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP)
10%
Agriculture share of GDP

ITUC Global Rights Index, 2020
Systematic violation of rights.

4
high
Risk to workers' rights

Context

Tunisia has a population of almost 11.7 million people.[1] The majority of Tunisians, 69%, lives in urban regions[2], while the rest 31% inhabits rural areas.[3] Agriculture assumes 14% of total employment,[4] with the agricultural sector representing 10% of the national GDP in Tunisia.[5]

Although Tunisia’s economy has been reviving during the past years, poverty is still a significant problem for the country. The state of development between regions in Tunisia varies greatly, with rural areas being the poorest. Together with tourism, agriculture is a key sector for Tunisia’s economy and a significant driver for the country’s regional development. Nevertheless, poor governance schemes concerning value chains, insufficient financing access for farmers as well as limited productivity due to water stress, pose severe obstacles to the sector’s development. In addition, women in rural areas face various issues which limit their access to decent employment, even though they represent more than half of the agricultural workforce. [6]

The top produced commodities in Tunisia are wheat, fresh cow milk, tomatoes, barley and olives.[7] Tunisia’s top export commodities in terms of quantity are virgin olive oil, refined sugar, dates, macaroni and food wastes.[8]

Footnotes
  1. ^ World Bank (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=TN
  2. ^ World Bank (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL.IN.ZS?locations=TN
  3. ^ World Bank (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.RUR.TOTL.ZS?locations=TN
  4. ^ World Bank (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS?locations=TN
  5. ^ World Bank (2019). https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NV.AGR.TOTL.ZS?locations=TN
  6. ^ IFAD. Country Profiles: Tunisia. https://www.ifad.org/en/web/operations/country/id/tunisia
  7. ^ FAOSTAT (2019). http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#rankings/commodities_by_country
  8. ^ FAOSTAT (2019). http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#rankings/commodities_by_country_exports

Wages

Minimum wage

The minimum wage in Tunisia, based on a 48-hour system, is 429 Tunisian dinars (130 EUR) per month. As for the agricultural minimum wage, this is set by law at 16.5 Tunisian dinars (5 EUR) per day or 446 Tunisian dinars (135 EUR) per month based on 27 workdays.[1] In general, the government of Tunisia has not been effective in enforcing the minimum wage stated above, especially in sectors without the presence of a workers’ union. Working conditions are reportedly better in foreign export focused companies than local ones specialising in the domestic market. In addition, labor violations are common in the informal sector, since the laws in effect do not protect the sector to a satisfactory level.[2]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Wage Indicator Foundation (2021). Minimum Wage-Tunisia. https://wageindicator.org/salary/minimum-wage/tunisia
  2. ^ [2] U.S. Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Tunisia. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/tunisia/

Living wage

The Global Living Wage Coalition has developed a Living Wage Reference Value study for rural Tunisia based on the Anker methodology.

The Anker Living Wage Reference Value for rural Tunisia is estimated at 695 Tunisian dinars (210 EUR) per month. This is the estimated wage for workers to be able to afford a basic but decent standard of living for an average family in rural Tunisia. The estimate is 2 times higher than the national poverty line wage. When compared to the national minimum wage of 429 Tunisian dinars (130 EUR) per month and the agricultural minimum wage of 446 Tunisian dinars (135 EUR) per month mentioned above, the living wage estimate is 62% and 56% higher respectively.[1]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Global Living Wage Coalition (2020). Anker Living Wage Reference Value-Rural Tunisia. https://www.globallivingwage.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Rural-Tunisia-LW-Reference-Value-FINAL.pdf

What's happening

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Living Wage Reference Value, Rural Tunisia

Living wage estimate for workers to be able to afford a basic but decent living standard in a typical rural area of Tunisia.

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Fair Wear Foundation: Tunisia

This report sheds light to the working conditions and incomes of workers in the Tunisian textile and garment industry.

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Covid-19 and the Tunisian Economy

This report by IFPRI, explores the effect that the pandemic has had on the agrifood sector and on household incomes in Tunisia.

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